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Category 1


COPA ( Computer Operator And Programming Assistant ) Free Read

COPA (Computer Operator And Programming Assistant) Book For ITI students Wrote by PC. Gupta And Rewrite by Panwer Dishu.

Lesson 1

*                                          Introduction to computer

Computer are the machine that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instruction or program. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in 1940s, were huge machines that required team of people to operate. Command to those early machines, today’s computers are amazing. Not only they are thousands time fasters, they can fit on your desk, on your lap or even in your pocket.
Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside your computer called the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or microprocessor. It’s the brain of computer-the part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer and other items are often called hardware devices.
Software refers to the instructions or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A word processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. The Operating System (OS) is a software that manage your computer and the devices connected to it. Two well-known operating systems are Windows or Macintosh operating systems. Your computers uses the Windows operating system.
*    1.2 History of computer
A computer is device which aids human in performing various kind of computations or calculations. In this respect the earlier computer was the abacus used to perform basic arithmetic operations.
Every computer supports some form of input, processing and output. This is less obvious on a primitive device such as the abacus where input, output and processing are simply the act of moving the pebbles into new positions, seeing the changed positions and counting. Regardless, this is what processes it according to its basic logic or the program currently running and output the results.
Modern computers do this electronically, which enables them to perform a vastly greater number of calculations or computations in less time. Despite the fact that we currently use computers to process images, sound, text and other non-numerical forms of data, all of it depends on nothing more than basic numerical calculations. Graphics, sound etc. are merely abstractions of the numbers being crunched within the machine; in digital computers these are the ones and zeros, combinations of those. In other words every image, sound and word have a corresponding binary code.
While abacus may have technically been the first compute most people today associate the word “computer” with electronic computers which were invented in the last century and have evolved into modern computers we know of today.

Evolution of the computer
·         The first computer device was the abacus originally from Asia. It worked in a place-value notion meaning that the place of a beed or rock on the apparatus determined how much it was worth.
·         1600s: John Napier discovers algorithms. Robert Bissaker invents the slide rule which will remain in popular use until 19th century.
·         1642: Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and philosopher, invents the first mechanical digital calculator using gears called the pascalin. Although this machine could perform addition and subtraction on whole numbers, it was too expensive and only Pascal himself could repair it.
·         1804: Joseph Marie Jacquard used punched card to automate a weaving loom.
·         1812: Charles P. Babbage, the “father of the computer”, discovered that many long calculations involved many similar repeated operations. Therefore, he designed a machine, the difference engine which would be steam-powered, fully automatic and concentrate on the analytical engine.
·         1840: Augusta Ada, “The First Programmer” suggested that a binary system should be used for storage rather than a decimal system.
·         1850s: George Boole developed Boolen logic which would later be used in the design of computer circuitry.
·         1890: Dr. Herman Hollerith introduced the first electromechinical punched-card data-processing machine which was used to compile information for the 1890 U.S. cencus. Hollerith’s tabular become so successful that he started his own business to market it. His company would eventually become International Business Machine (IBM).
·         1906: The vacuum tube is invented by American physicist Lee De Forest.
·         1939: Dr. John V. Atanasoff and his assistant Clifford Berry build the first electronic digital computer. Their machin, the Atanasoff-Berry-Computer (ABC) provided the foundation for the advances in electronic digital computers.
·         1941: Konrad Zuse (recently deceased in January of 1996) from Germany, introduced the first programmable computer designed to solve complex engineering equations. This machine called the Z3 was also the first to work on the binary system instead of the decimal system.
·         1943: British mathematician Alan Turing developed a hypothetical device, the logical operation and could read and write. It would presage programmable computers. He also used vacuum technology to build British Colossus, a machine to counteract the German code scrambling device, Enigma
·         1944: Howard Aiken, in collaboration with engineers from IBM, constructed a large automatic digital sequence-controlled computer called the Harvard Mark I. This computer could handle all four arithmetic operations and had special built-in programs for logarithms and trigonometric functions.
·         1945: Dr. John von Neumann presented a paper outlining on the stored-program concept.
·         1947: the giant ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) machine was developed by john W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania. It used 18,000 vacuums, punch-card input, weighed thirty tons and occupied a thirty-by-thirty-foot space. It wasn’t programmable but was productive from 1946 to 1955 and was to compute artillery firing tables, William Brattain of Bell and radio.
·         1949:  Maurice V. Wilkes built the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automate Computer), the first stored-program computer. EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Valiable Automatic Computer), the second stored-program computer was built by Mauchly, Eckert and Von Neumann. An Wang developed magnetic-core memory which Jay Forrester would reorganize to be more efficient.
·         1950: Turing built the ACE was considered to be the first programmable digital computer.
1.3.1 First Generation (1940-1956) VACUUM TUBES
The first computer used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity and generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
First generation computers relied on machine language, the low-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards, paper tape and output was displayed on printouts.
The UNIVAC and ENIVAC computers are examples of first generations computing devices. The UNIVAC was the U.S Census Bureau in 1951.
ENIVAC’s development and construction lasted from 1943 to full operation at the end of 1945. The machine was huge, weighting 30 tons and contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes. One of the major engineering feats was to minimize tube burnout, which was a common problem at that time. The machine was in almost constant use for the next ten years.
EDVAC was the first stored-program computer designed. However it was not the first to run. In 1949 by the Manchester Mark I computer is a complete system using William’s tube and magnetic drum memory and introducing index registers.
With EDVAC the first generation of computers ends then starts the second generation using transistors.

1.3.2 Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
From 1955 the transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computer designs, giving rise to the “second generation” of computers.
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computer until the late 1950’s. Also the first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
The second-generation of computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic or assembly languages. Which allowed programming to specify in words. High-level programming language were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

1.3.3 Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated Circuits was the hallmark of the third generation’s computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

The explosion in the use of computers began with “third-generation” computers making use of the integrated circuit (or microchip), which later led to the invention of the microprocessor.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating systems, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time become accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
The computer become small, low-cost and that could be owned by individuals and small businesses. Microcomputers, the first of which appeared became ubiquitous and beyond.

1.3.4 Fourth Generation (1971-80’s) Microprocessors
The Microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit on the palm. The Intel 4004 chip developed in 1971 located all the components of the computer from the central processing unit and memory to input/output control on a single chip.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home users and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.  Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessor.

As these small computers became more powerful, which eventually led to the development of the internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of the mouse handheld device, etc.

Note :.. This Book Is Under Construction. 

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